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Edem’s warning

Pressing the cabled handle of the quad bike sent the bike soaring in the air. Matinga was sent spiralling in the air, he somersaulted in the air, did a couple of loops and landed with a thud on the grass. The quad bike went a different tangent, continued on in a straight line and headed straight to the barriers, it crashed through the barriers and landed on the open field where, Edem was searching his garden for snails.

Snails have always been a delicacy in Greenfields. Because of the rich vegetation of the land, snails flourished in the fields, farmlands and ranges. It was always a popular sight to see children early in the morning with lanterns, in the woods, picking snails, nkoriko* and mushrooms. They would finish picking the landed creatures on time, get ready and go to school.

Greenfield was a land that, despite urbanization and all the deforestation that had happened, was still pure, until the Briars arrived. The farming system practiced here, was the type that would see some plots of land farmed in a particular season and after harvesting the crops, it was left to lie fallow for a particular length of time to allow, the soil to regenerate, enriching itself and naturally revitalizing itself for the next planting season. This way, there wasn’t any need to add fertilizers to the ground, as the ground had enough nutrients to sustain any planting season that came naturally to it.

Then came the Briars. The Briars had lived in the city all their life. They acquired wealth, and brought this wealth back to Greenfield. The Briars, is a term that was used to denote the Greenfielders who lived outside Greenfield. They were born in the city, they grew up in the city, they lived a fast paced life and made money only to realize that the only thing they had was money. They did not have a good quality life; they did not know what it meant to plant a field only for your needs.  They didn’t know the word contentment. They knew the words accumulate, stockpile, return on investment, me, I, my, and commerce. These Briars acted like robots. Right from when they wake up in the morning, they are like automated machines, they only go home to sleep. Why would one build a home only to sleep in it?

Edem, a rural Greenfielder went one time to the city to visit his uncle, Harry. Edem was on school holidays. He didn’t last a week in the big city. He couldn’t stand his cousins. They were emotionless. They didn’t know what life meant. Everybody was doing their own thing. He had a room to himself. He wondered why he had a room to himself when he could sleep in his cousin’s room. He was told, there wasn’t a spare bed in his cousin’s room. He said he would sleep on the mat. They said, they don’t have a mat. What did they have then? They had beds, fridges and refrigerators, microwaves, big TV screens on the wall, Xbox, Ybox, Zbox, yet they didn’t have a simple mat. Uncle Harry and Aunty Stephanie burst into laughter. They told Edem that he wasn’t back in Greenfield, that here in the city, people were civilized and do not necessarily share things like that. “If they did not share things, what did they share?” Edem questioned. “Isn’t life meant to be shared?” Edem at thirteen years old knew that this was not life.

In the morning, people had breakfast at different times. Was this what they called life, he thought? He had cereals which tasted very sugary. He drank milk from a bottle. He thought about his cow Muna at home, which he would go to every morning and milk. He remembered the frothing milk from Muna and how he would drink it fresh. He remembered the mushrooms he would pluck from the woods and use it for breakfast. He remembered how he would wander into the orchard and pick ripe mangoes and eat them. He remembered that people didn’t store food items unnecessarily because the orchard was always there to pluck the fruits from. The farm was always there to get fresh farm produce from. In Greenfield, people didn’t use microwave to warm food or cook food, people didn’t eat from tins and cans, people rarely visited the hospitals because people were strong. Everybody walked to the farm, a journey of sometimes up to three miles. People left for the farm at the first cock’s crow. People returned from farm at sunset. People came back from the farm with fresh produce on their heads. People went to the stream to swim and fetch water. People socialized on their way to the streams. People helped each other and looked out for each other. People held hands and walked the slippery slope during the rainy season. As a rule, you don’t leave your brother behind. Who was a brother? – A member of the community.  Until the Briars came and things changed.

Edem announced to his uncle that he was going back to the village of Greenfield.
“Why? Have we offended you?”
“No uncle”
“Are you not enjoying yourself?”
“I want to go back before I die. I am dying. I feel like I am in a prison. I only talk to machines and gadgets. I am not used to this. I am used to plenty laughter. I am used to playing in the open fields. I miss my freshly plucked mangoes. I miss my swim in the stream. In the stream we jump into the river naked. In the stream we swim across the tide. I miss talking to people. I want to go back to Greenfield”.

Edem swore never to go back to the big city. Then the Briars came to Greenfield. They started buying off the farm produce, they bought off entire plantations. Life began to change. People started fencing their orchards. People started telling people to stay off their fruits. People started monetizing everything.
Then Greenfield changed.

The Briars came and bought lands. They built houses and fenced it around. They also built storey buildings. Land became expensive, housing became expensive. They employed the locals to do house chores for them. Then competition set in. Brothers started fighting, sister’s quarelled over a man. Greed set in. The society got divided. Strata started forming and right before Edem’s eyes, he saw his native Greenfield, begin to be like uncle Harry’s city. He wept. He called his friends and told them, what has happened to Greenfield, is not good. He warned them, that they have to do something about it. He sounded the alarm to his friends. He sounded the alarm to his community. The town crier went forth, screaming, shouting and calling for a meeting in the village square. They converged at the square and discussed what Edem described as ‘the impending doom.’
“They will take our happiness. They will take our communality; they will take away our way of life. They will turn us into robots. They will make us talk to machines instead of talking to human beings. We will start to compete against one another and become lonely.”
His voice was drowned by, “but we get paid to work for them. We now have money. We can get big cars and live comfy lives like them.”
“This is not a good sign” Edem cried.
“What was wrong with the way we lived our lives. We were happy. We enjoyed life. We lived beautiful. We ate good food, we enjoyed nature, our community was not polluted” Edem continued preaching.
“But we are going to be reckoned in the comity of cities. Development is coming into our community. Factories, roads, hospitals, schools, leisure centres, name them”, he was countered.
“But my point is we don’t need them. We have everything already in its natural state. What do we need hospitals for? We hardly get sick anyways. If we do, we know the right herbs to take. We don’t need swimming pools, we have the rivers where we swim from, don’t we?”
“But the river is dirty, we cannot swim in lanes in the river, we cannot compete with other cities if we don’t have the pools” another voice argued with him.
“That’s a lie, we have been told. Is it not the same river we have been swimming in? Did our fathers and grandfathers and great grandfathers not swim and drink from this same river? Has it not served our people well. Don’t we have our wells and water purification system? Let me sound it loud and clear to you all, twenty years from now, we will realize in full scale, the damage we have let the Briars do to our land, by allowing the Briars to come into our community and take over our way of life. This action is irreversible.”

Greenfield blossomed. Greenfield grew in its new found state. Soon Greenfield became a commercial centre. Lands were taken, buildings were erected. Rivers were diverted, hospitals were built and Greenfield turned to be like the city where uncle Harry and Aunty Stephanie lived.

Edem refused to sell his homestead to the Briars. Through legislation, they took his family lands and estate. He lived on the house his father built. He farmed on his land and continued to eat from his land. He was a loner. Greenfielders were now driving big cars, making money and not even having the time to enjoy their money. They bought a lie of the Briars and when it dawned on the people what had befallen them, they went to Edem and on his dying bed, they told him “we never saw what you saw, if only we knew then…”

Edem died on his homestead and the city council converted his house to a memorial home to show what life once looked like in Greenfield and the danger of refusing to heed the voice of preservation.

In the Dark Cave in Kuala Lumpur, there is a bench that stands as a reminder of what it is like not to preserve what one has. The cave was vandalized. Graffiti was on the walls and life on the cave was destabilized until the government took a firm stand and tried to restore the cave back to its original condition, so does Edem’s house stand as a memorial to people of what it is like not to preserve what one has.

*nkoriko – smaller version of snail

 

Uwem Mbot Umana©2020

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11 Comments

  • Paul Elakhe Posted July 5, 2020 10:07 pm

    What worked well was the fact that the story depicts the negative effects of urbanisation . It is an area often neglected. Societies get excited by the development that comes with urbanisation, only few people write about the demerits of urbanisation and the writer of this story is one of such few.

    This story is like the story of Abuja which became the Federal Capital of Nigeria in 1991. Prior to 1991, the natives of Abuja lived like the Greenfielders where people helped each other, lived like a community and lived in contentment. But when it became urbanised, lands and housing became expensive, competition set in, court cases relating to land disputes skyrocketed, either between communities or between the government and communities, health related problems increased because of pollution and conditions of living became expensive. So i liked the fact that the story revealed the hidden problems that urbanisation creates.

    I am amazed at the reasoning of a thirteen (13) year old boy, Edem. He knew life wasn’t the way the Briars lived it. Edem must be a man of deep understanding to have warned people of the unseen consequences of choosing a life of vanity.

    The story is superb, nevertheless readers would have loved to see greater regret on the part of
    the Greenlanders and the story should have portrayed how the Briars suffered the consequences of their conceit eg the increase in crime, health challenges they suffered as a result of pollution etc.

  • Yemi Adebiyi Posted July 5, 2020 9:58 am

    This is a superbly written narrative on social and cultural conflicts with attendant consequence of loss of identity by any group that consume others values withotany restrain.
    What caught my attention is the author’s opener that immediately pitch the natural environment of Greenville with the modern invention. The reader is told to tighten the seat belt for a tortuous flight.
    What works well in the story is the pathetic, peasant voice of lamentation by Eden as he watched the replacement of natural environment with artificial imports by the invaders taking over Greenville.
    The story ended beautifully as the natives realised there was truth in Edems message and regretted their mistakes in allowing their values, their environment, their culture to be deleted by replacement.
    Lovers of environment preservation will like this short tale. A nice read.

  • Marcus-Philemon Omotayo Posted July 4, 2020 9:50 pm

    I can see from the story how life in the village is very interesting as everyone relate closely together and have almost everything in common.
    What worked well for me in the story was the fact that they ate all their food fresh and did not have to store it, which means they ate healthy all the time.
    What caught my attention the most was that Edem did not see anything fascinated about the life in the city he still cherished his village life more than all the glamour in the city and longed to go back home.
    What I liked the most in the story was the life style of the people in the village how they loved each other and did most things together.
    I think the writer should have told us what became of the people of the village after most of what they had was sold out.

  • Joel-Levi Omotayo Posted July 4, 2020 9:30 pm

    The story beautifully potrayed the richness of rural life and It’s community living, eating fresh farm products and close relationship amongst individuals and the healthy lifestyle of the people in the community.
    What worked well in the story was that they eventually showed that Edem’s warning was very important even though they did not heed to them.
    I really liked the peaceful living of the Green fielder’s and their rich resources of nature and their close living and relationship towards one another and the healthy lifestyle due to the community fresh food.
    The story further explain’s how civilization had taken away from us the bond and close relationship and has eaten up the family and has taken away laughter and family and friends gathering from us it also shows us how we have exchanged almost everything for money regardless of who or what is important.
    What struck me the most was inspite of all the flash tools and gadgets Edem never forgot where came from and longed to go back to his village which he very much appreciate the simple and easy community living.
    The story ended well but I think the writer should have further told us what became of the people who later regretted not yielding to Edem’s advise.

  • Joel-Levi Omotayo Posted July 4, 2020 8:58 pm

    The story beautifully potrayed the richness of rural life and It’s community living, eating fresh farm products the close relationship amongst individuals and the healthy lifestyle of the people in the community.
    What worked well in the story was the story eventually showed that Edem’s warning was very important even though they didn’t heed to them.
    I really liked the peaceful living of the Green fielder’s and their rich resources of nature and their close living and relationship towards one another and the healthy lifestyle due to the communities fresh food.
    The story further explain’s how civilization had taken away from us the bond and close relationship and has eaten up the family times has taken away laughter and family and friend gathering from us it also shows us how we have exchange almost everything for money regardless of who or what is important.
    What struck me the most was inspite of all the flash, tools and gadgets saw when he came to the city he never forgot where he came from and longed to go back to his village which he very much appreciate the simple and easy community living.
    The story ended well but I think the writer should have further told us what became of the people who later regretted not yielding to Edem’s advise.

  • Elnathan Posted July 4, 2020 8:49 pm

    I liked the fact that the writer was a able to depict and discern the importance of culture.
    Edem grew up knowing his culture, and because of that, knew the impact of bringing in the technological way of life into his village.
    He appreciated the sweet flow of nature and quiet life. He liked fellowshipping with neighbour’s physically rather than virtually or with communication gadgets.
    This story teaches me that being able to communicate with people physically, enables us to be able to build a good and healthy relationship with our fellow friends and loved ones.
    Just imagine a home with people who where always using their phones.
    From my point of view, this story brings about the importance of culture, physical relationship and being able to control yourself against technology and riches.

  • Naa Quaye Posted July 4, 2020 7:19 pm

    Edem’s Warning depicts a cry to the community not to forget its culture. There are so many factors that have aided in the eradication of our culture as a country and a community. Colonization for instance had an effect on our culture. People like the rich and powerful also have an effect on our culture. The story shows the two different ways of living in two areas ie the urban areas and rural area. In the urban areas we find the rich and powerful and in the rural areas we find the poor. Both areas have their way of living but the rich always find a way to dominate the poor because they feel entitled to it.
    In the story the writer talked about Edem’s visit to the city. His visit to the city showed a bridge/gap in both worlds. He literally stated that he was dying and wanted to go back to the village because he couldn’t adapt to their way of living in the city. In the city’ he saw how their lives were based on technology. He termed it as robot living even though they had all the money in the world their way of living was not rich as compared in the village. In the village the people were living richly. They had the freedom to do what they wanted such as swimming naked in the stream, plucking of oranges having their friends around to laugh with. He even boasted about how healthy they were and they didn’t need to go to the hospital because they had natural medicines “herbs” and they hardly felt sick too.
    The thought of the Briars coming into the community to change everything broke Edem’s heart and wanted the community to see the effect of their coming would have an effect on the community. This takes our mind back to the era of colonization and the effect of the coming of the Westerners had on the African country. It eradicated our cultural values that in society today no one believes in their culture anymore. They see such life as old system and the current state as modernized system.
    What caught my attention was when the people came into realization of Edem’s warning and this was on his sick bed. What I realized was that everyone forgot about their culture because of how the Briars brought modernization to the community but they realized late the effect it had on them. How it was slowly letting them forget their culture and what they believed in.
    I like the fact that the Briars wanted to develop the community because their intention seemed good but the approached was bad. It was a community which means the voice of the people had to be heard to know what they really wanted before effecting such changes in the community. They needed to exert their riches and influence in a positive way to create balance. Modernizing the community does not need to eradicate the life they have always known.
    The writer should have showed what actions the community was going to take after realizing Edem’s warning to them.
    All the same it was a good story

  • Mary-Joan Nwaogu Posted July 4, 2020 1:48 pm

    Edem’s Warning is an interesting creative work that portrays the current trend in rural areas of this modern era. Typically, rural settings are quite serene and full of life and enchantment.

    Like children in Greenfield, children in some other rural settings take early morning trips not minding any danger that may loom in the bushes and woods. Some wake up as early as 4am to pick the African cherry also known as African Star Fruit, but locally called “Agbalumo” among the Yorubas and “Udara” among the Igbos.

    Irrespective of the low cost of living in the rural settings, Edem and other children in Greenfield enjoyed the serene environment. It is Only those who were neither born, nor have spent any time in the rural setting like Greenfield that would not understand how it feels like carrying lantern early in the morning, sitting under trees or walk around in the woods to pick “udara”, “Afang”, snail or mushroom or other things. Imagine the fun when the children see what they go out to pick. run at the same time, but only the fastest feet or fingers finally grab the hunt.
    Though the stream may seem dirty, our forefathers bathed in and fetched from the same stream. Most of them lived many years on earth, they were strong and agile and rarely fell sick.

    Edem enjoyed all these. He may have equally enjoyed moonlight stories and also chasing rabbits until they enter their burrows. These are memories that hardly fade into thin air.

    Farming in Greenfield was a pleasant task. Farmers were happy to do what they knew how best to do. Despite the effect of urbanisation which had impact on deforestation at the arrival of the Briars, farmlands in Greenfield lived up to their name – Greenfield – being very fertile. Using fertilizers was foreign and needless because as their grounds had enough nutrients due to the farming system practiced by the people of Greenfield.

    The Briars though Greenfielders, were far from nature and real ‘life’ as they live all their life in the city. They were more of the kind of people termed to be of the “jet age”. All they understand is build more”, “solitude”, acquisition”, “accumulate”, “inhabit”, “take over” and so on. Contentment was not a word in their dictionary. The Briars could not differentiate between life and living. They had life but were more or less robotic. In the author’s own words, “they are life automated machines…”

    For Edem, going to the city to visit his uncle must have been an awaited opportunity. Did he enjoy his visit? No. He regretted going for the visit. Arriving at Uncle Harry’s house, Eden felt the house was too big for it’s few inhabitants just like the house of Dimpsey’s parents in the city (from the book: Dimpsey’s Chronicles by Erumena Amata). People build big houses in the city unlike is seen in rural communities.

    Ordinarily, a child on holiday would enjoy a change of environment but this wise Edem is not in that category. He felt the Briars were emotionless and had accumulated more than they ever required or needed. As a thirteen year-old boy, he could imagine the lifelessness in the Briars. He could not imagine being one of them. To him, the Briars were more or less regulated machines who function as artificial human persons as they only consumed artifficial food, and drinks.
    The freshness of edible things as available at Greenfield was completely not available among the Briars. These were evident in their intake of cereals rather than fresh or natural cereals or wheat, fruit juice rather than fresh fruits, tomato paste as against fresh tomato, other forms of can goods, the use of microwave and a host of others.

    Edem was not in support if this kind of life, he preferred the natural and practical life back at Greenfield. He was against the concept of living and life as portrayed by the Briars. Brotherliness and family life were a mirage among the Briars. Edem felt like he was choking at the city. He longed to go back home to his rural and natural setting before the city would suffocate him. Edem did not like the prison-like living by the Briars. He felt like he was living among machines with no human feelings. This was different from the lovely relationships that exist back at Greenfield where people play around in open fields, get involved in plenty laughter, pluck riped fruits, swim in the stream, pick snails and engage in other lively activities. Edem was not ready to compromise his health, well-being and happiness. He made up his mind to go back to Greenfield despite his Uncle’s opinion.

    While Edem swore never to return to the city, the Briars were busy making their way to the village to continue their wealth acquisition. This time, they bought lands, farm produce and even entire plantations. This is not unique to Greenfield alone. Many communities now face this situation where their sons come from the city and foreign lands to buy off property and plantations. Some times, they buy off entire fruits on trees, whether ripe or unripe. If the fruits are not matured as at time of purchase, the owner guards the fruits until they are matured before the buyer could collect them for export puporses. Gradually, this and other acts make farm produce very expensive in the rural areas.

    Edem foresaw the future of damage the Briars were going to do to Greenfield. He warned his kinsmen but like a lone-ranger, he was left by his people to be a ‘stand-alone’. People thought he was sick for not accepting urbanisation of Greenfield. He was countered. They were not foresighted. They knew only of the short term benefits they will get and how they will be reckoned in the comity of cities, and of developed communities.

    Finally, Greenfield became a city by venture of investments by the Briars. Greenfielders sold off their lands, plantations, and so on. Though Greenfield looked like the city where Uncle Harry lived, peace and tranquility of the village became compromised. Human relationships turned automated. Human relationships turned automated and mechanised. There were no more stream to bathe in nor swim. Children no longer had opportunity to pick snails nor mushrooms, no moonlight stories.

    Though they had development, they had social amenities, life was automated. Interpersonal relationships were nothing to write home about. The damages caused by accepting the Briars were irreversible despite the blossoming nature of Greenfield.

    In all these, Edem stood the test of time. He did not give in. He held to his homestead even though his family lands and estate were taken from him. Though the Greenfielders became affluent, they were not happy. When it dawned on them they had committed a big blunder and a crime against nature, it was too late to redeem their community.

    “We never saw what you saw, if only we knew then…” was their comment to Edem on his dying bed. If only they had listened to him, the consequences would not have been as grievous as it was. “A prophet is never respected but in his own home”. Though young, Edem saw tommorow for his people but it is age long fact
    that “people do not value what they have until they lose it”. Greenfielders did not value Edem until his death.

    In the whole of Greenfield, only Edem’s homestead depicted their ancestral lineage. No wonder the City Council converted his house to a memorial to show what life once looked like in Greenfield and the danger of refusing to heed to the voice of reason and preservation.

    Edem’s Greenfield is like many local settings at the moment. So many communities are selling off their birth rights for money, thus giving away what was once their identity. So many people have failed to pass on their traditional values unto their children. I am afraid many more communities will in the near future become the new Greenfield with no human face if the greed to ‘acquire it all’ continues.

  • Bamidele Mary Posted July 4, 2020 9:27 am

    This story showcases the developments that came with civilization, it is also a classical contrast between rural and urban living.

    It gives one an inkling about how the average African man lived before the arrival of the white man and the advent of civilization; the Briars in this story represents the white man.

    Edem is the voice in the wilderness, warning his people about the impending doom that would befall their societal values, culture, heritage, brotherhood, and socialization, if they embrace the ways of the Briars, but like a dog destined to get lost, his people didn’t heed his warning.

    To the people of Greenfield, civilization was like the ultimate oil boom, and they jumped on board to indulge in all its perks, discarding their identity and heritage like a child discards beanscake for honey.

    Our contemporary situation as Africans is like that of the people of Greenfield, we fell head over heels for the seemingly advantageous tech and modern ways of foreigners, we discarded our own values, saw our cultural heritage as barbaric and archaic, jumped on modern philosophies and reveled in its technologies, the rat race of our now white-collar jobs, until we were stuck in the rut and in need of some semblance of our normal life in the past.

    Alas! It’s almost too late.

    The citizens of Greenfield prioritized the glittering diamonds of the Briars over their honorable source of livelihood, peace and quiet, communalism, and the sense of brotherhood they had, until reality hit them at the end of the road that not all that glitters is gold.

    They remembered Edem’s warning but now their fate is just like the scorners of Noah’s Ark who got locked out to suffer the consequences of their actions.

  • Joel Kalu Posted July 3, 2020 5:34 pm

    Edem’s Warning is one that has been ongoing for years. The debate over which is better between country life or city life continues to rage on. There are points for each, with lots of reasons why one should prevail over the other.
    That being said, I see a need to strike a balance between both ; for example, for every school or mall built, there should be enough surrounding trees, plants and shrubs to ensure that there is a balance between both ways of life (country life and city life). This is just one of many ways that both can coexist, be it in the city or rural areas.
    Edem is an avid lover of nature, an environmentalist even. You can feel the energy and passion he exudes when speaking about his way of life in Greenfield.
    His incessant cries for the Briars to be stopped from overrunning his beloved community ultimately fell on deaf ears. It is ironic and a tad bit sad therefore that it was in his final hours on earth that his people came to see their mistakes and the flaws of their ways.
    Edem’s Warning is reflection of the society we live in today. Industrialization under the disguise of “civilization” sets in and we have seen the pitfalls that ensue. The question is, will these warnings keep going unheeded?

  • Aimée Posted July 1, 2020 11:50 pm

    What worked well was the writer’s ability to depict what it means to preserve one’s culture. From birth, Edem had been used to his rural lifestyle. The waking up at the first cock’s crow, harvesting produce before going to school, general farming practices. His lifestyle brought about a deep connection with the community and the people. Doing things together, having properties to call your own, not bothering about where the next meal will come from or medical bills to pay because everyone lived healthy lives. Everyone was each other’s keeper. The quality of life was good. Indeed, this was life.

    What picked my interest was the fact that Edem hated his visit to the city. Someone would have thought that he would have enjoyed every bit of it, getting used to the technology and advancement, playing games and watching TV with his cousin’s, but it was the exact opposite. He was literally dying. Visiting his relatives really showed the distinction between urban and rural living. Edem did not enjoy or admire anything about the city. Everyone was on their own, doing their things; technology had taken over and there was no bond sharing among the people. Nothing to connect them to their roots. One was alive but not living. This experience made Edem return home.

    The invasion of the Briars into Greenfield seemed pleasing to the eyes. Edem knew fully well that if they accepted this new way of life, living would become a thing of the past. The other Greenfielders couldn’t see it from his point of view, instead, they relied on the beautiful side of modernization/civilization; the riches, the technology, the easy living that comes with it, not knowing what would become of Greenfield in the future.

    Everything that glitters isn’t gold and not all good things last. That was the case of Greenfield. The community flourished for a while but soon, everything Edem had warned them about came to reality. Everything they once knew or held unto in Greenfield was now history. Their lives were stripped from them but it was too late to turn back the hand of time. The deed had been done. But Edem held on to his heritage, his culture and lived life to the fullest, with no regrets.

    This story should be a lesson to all. Before accepting any new idea or lifestyle, weigh the pros and cons. We shouldn’t jump at the first sight of wealth and ease forgetting our roots. Technology has done good to us but there are always two sides of a coin. Life is not a bed of roses but how we choose to live, manage and adapt determines the outcome.

    The writer should have shown in depth the regrets of the people for not heeding to Edem’s words. Also, a detailed description of the future state of Greenfield would have been better, as we could clearly see when describing its former state.

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